ၾႃႉမိုၼ်ႇမုင်ႈ

ၾႃႉမိုၼ်ႇမုင်ႈ

ႁဝ်းတေၵႆႉလႆႈငိၼ်းၵၼ်ယူႇတႃႇသေႇ မိူဝ်ႈၽွင်းပဵၼ်ပွႆးပဵၼ်လၢမ်း ပွႆးလူႇတၢၼ်းႁဵတ်းၵၢၼ်လီၵုသူလ်ႇ” ၶေႃႈၵႂၢမ်းဢၼ်ဝႃႈ ၸၵ်ႇၵျႃႇဝရႃႇ” ႁႂ်ႈဢွၵ်ႇပူၼ်ႉမူၼ်ႉလွတ်ႈသေၸၵ်ႇၵျႃႇဝရႃႇ မိုၼ်ႇၸၢတ်ႈသႅၼ်ပိူင် ၼႆၸိူဝ်းၼႆႉ၊ ၸၵ်ႇၵျႃႇဝရႃႇ(ဢၢပ်ႈပဵၼ်) ၵႂၢမ်းပႃႇရိလူႉ၊ ထႆးၶဝ်ၵေႃႈတေဝႃႈ “ၸၵ်ႇၵဝၢလ်း” ၼႂ်းၵႂၢမ်းတႆးႁဝ်းတႄႉလိူၼ်တႆးတေႁွင်ႉဝႃႈ “ၶူင်းၵၢင်”(ၾႃႉမိုၼ်ႇမုင်ႈ)(သင်မီးၶေႃႈၵႂၢမ်းဢၼ်ၵိုင်ႇလႅပ်ႈလိူဝ်ၼႆႉၵေႃႈ ၽွမ်ႉတႃႇတေလႅၵ်ႈလၢႆႈၸွမ်းယူႇ) ၵွပ်ႈၼၼ်မိူဝ်ႈၼႆႉ လိူၼ်တႆး တေဢဝ်လွင်ႈၶူင်းၵၢင်ပွတ်းဢွၼ်ႇတွၼ်ႈၼိုင်ႈမႃးၽၢၵ်ႇတွၼ်ႈပၼ်ၶႃႈ။

ယူႇတီႈပိုၼ်ႉၶၢမ်ႇလၵ်းထၢၼ်ၽူႈၶူၼ်ႉၶႂႃႉပိူင်ႈၵၼ်ဢိတ်းဢွတ်းသေ မၢင်တီႈၵေႃႈတေၼပ်ႉဝႃႈမီးသိပ်းလုၵ်ႈ၊ မၢင်တီႈၵေႃႈတေၼပ်ႉၵဝ်ႈလုၵ်ႈ၊ မၢင်တီႈၵေႃႈတေၼပ်ႉပႅတ်ႇလုၵ်ႈ၊ မိူဝ်ႈၼႆႉလိူၼ်တႆးၵေႃႈတေၼပ်ႉလၢႆးၵဝ်ႈလုၵ်ႈၼၼ်ႉၵႂႃႇၶႃႈဢေႃႈ။

လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းပဵၼ်ပိူင်လွင်ႈယႂ်ႇလိူဝ်ပိူၼ်ႈပုၼ်ႈတႃႇလုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်(လူၵ်ႈ)တင်းလၢႆ ၊ ပဵၼ်ဢၼ်ၼွင်ႇၸၼ်ဢဝ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်လူင်တင်းၵဝ်ႈ၊ ၸုၵ်းမၼ်ႈယူႇတီႈဢၼ်ၵိုင်ႇဢၢပ်ႈ၊ ပၢႆပၼ်သၢႆႁိူဝ်ႈလႅင်းလႄႈ ႁႅင်းလိူတ်ႇမႆႈတႃႇလုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်တင်းၵဝ်ႈသေဢမ်ႇၵႃး သင်ဢမ်ႇမီးလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼႆ လၢဝ်လူင်တင်းၵဝ်ႈလုၵ်ႈၵေႃႈ တေလပ်းသိုင်ႇလႄႈ ၵတ်းလၢင်ႈလူင်ဝႆႉယူႇ၊သင်ၽႃႇလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းမႃးပဵၼ်သိၵ်ႈသိၵ်ႈၸိုင် တၢင်းၼႂ်းမၼ်းၼၼ်ႉဢမ်ႇလႆႈၵႅၼ်ႇၶႅင်မိူၼ်လူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉ၊ လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းပဵၼ်ထၢၼ်ႇႁိၼ်ဢၼ်ၵွၼ်ႈယႂ်ႇလိူဝ်လႄႈ ပဵၼ်ပဵဝ်ၾႆးဝႆႉယူႇ၊ လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၶဝ်ႈပႃးလေႃးထၢတ်ႈ ႁၢႆးၻရူဝ်ၵျဵၼ်ႉ(Hydrogen) လႄႈ ႁီႇလဵမ်ႇ(Helium) လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းဢမ်ႇလႆႈထုၵ်ႇၽဝ်မႆႈၵွပ်ႈထၢတ်ႈ(Hydrogen) ႁႂ်ႈပဵၼ်မႃး ႁီႇလဵမ်ႇ(Helium)ၼင်ႇၵဝ်ႇ၊ လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းပဵၼ်ပိူင်ဢၼ်မႆႈလိူဝ်ပိူၼ်ႈသုတ်းၼႂ်းၵႃႈလၢဝ်လူင်တင်းလၢႆ၊ လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၸၢင်ႈမႆႈလိူတ်ႇလႆႈထိုင် 15 M°၊ တၢင်းမႆႈလိူတ်ႇလူင်တၢၼ်ႇၼႆႉ ၸၢင်ႈႁဵတ်းႁႂ်ႈၵူၼ်းဢၼ်ယူႇၸမ်မွၵ်ႈ 150 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ (km) တၢႆလႆႈလူးၵွၼ်ႇယဝ်ႉ။

လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းပဵၼ်ပိုၼ်ႉၶၢမ်ႇဝူင်ႈၵၢင်လၢဝ်လူင်တင်းၵဝ်ႈ၊ ႁႅင်းၼိုင်ၵမ်ႈၼမ်ၼႂ်းၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ်ၼႆႉတေယူႇတီႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းမီးၼမ်ထိုင် 99.87% ပဵၼ်ႁႅင်းၼိုင်ႁူမ်ႈၵၼ်ၼႂ်းၵႃႈၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ်ၼင်ႇၵၼ်မီးယူႇ 0.13% လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းပဵၼ်လၢဝ်သႅၼ်းလဵၵ်ႉဝႆႉမိူဝ်ႈတႅၵ်ႈၼိူင်းၵၼ်တင်းၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ်တင်းလၢႆ ၊ ၵူၺ်းၼႃႇပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်ယူႇၸမ်လူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉဝႆႉၸင်ႇတေႁၼ်ပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈမူၼ်းမူၼ်းဢၼ်ယႂ်ႇသုတ်း၊ ဢၼ်ႁဝ်းမုင်ႈႁၼ်ၼိူဝ်လူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉယူႇယဝ်ႉ၊ လၢဝ်တၢင်ႇလုၵ်ႈတႄႉတေႃႉတႄႉႁၼ်သၢႆလႅင်းဝႆႉဢိတ်းဢွတ်းၵူၺ်း ၵွပ်ႈပိူဝ်ႈမၼ်းယူႇၵႆၵၼ်တင်းလူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉႁဝ်းဝႆႉ၊ ၵူၺ်းၵႃႈဢမ်ႇၸႂ်ႈလႄႈဝႃႈလၢဝ်တၢင်ႇဢၼ်ၼၼ်ႉလုၵ်ႈလဵၵ်ႉလႄႈၸင်ႇဢမ်ႇႁၼ်သၢႆလႅင်းၼမ်၊ ပေႃးတႅၵ်ႈၼိူင်ႈတူၺ်းတေႇဢဝ်ဝူင်ႈၵၢင်တေႃႇထိုင်ၽင်ႇၼၼ်ႉၸမ်ထိုင် 109 လႄႈ ပေႃးၶႂ်ႈတၢၼ်ႇလုၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉၵေႃႈဝႃႈယဝ်ႉ။

              လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းမီးႁႅင်းပွင်ၶိုၼ်ႈမႃးႁင်းၵူၺ်း လႄႈၵၢၼ်လႅၵ်ႈလၢႆႈႁႅင်းပွင်ပိၼ်ႇပၢႆႇၶၢႆႉပိူင်ႈၸွမ်းပိူင်ၵၢၼ် ဢႆး(ၼသ်)တႆး(ၼ်) E = mc2 (E ပဵၼ်ႁႅင်းပွင်၊ m ပဵၼ်ၼိူဝ်ႉသၢၼ်၊ လႄႈ c ပဵၼ်တၢင်းဝႆးၵၢၼ်တူင်ႉၼိုင်ႁႅင်းသၢႆႁိူဝ်ႈလႅင်းမီး 300,000 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ{km} တေႃႇၼိုင်းသၵ်ႉၵသ်ႉ) ႁိမ်းႁွမ်းလွင်ႈလႅၵ်ႈလၢႆႈႁႅင်းပွင်ပဵၼ်ၼိူဝ်ႉသၢၼ်ၼၼ်ႉမီးႁႅင်းမႆႈထိုင် 15 M ° ၊ ၼႂ်းၵႅၼ်ၵၢင်လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းမီးထၢတ်ႈတႅၵ်ႇႁၢႆးၻရူဝ်ၵျဵၼ်ႉ(Hydrogen)တင်းၼမ်တင်းလၢႆ ႁႅင်းတႅၵ်ႇပဵၼ်ၸွမ်းပိူင်ၼိဝ်ၶရေး တီႈႁၢႆးၻရူဝ်ၵျဵၼ်ႉ(Hydrogen) လႅၵ်ႈလၢႆႈပဵၼ်ႁီႇလဵမ်ႇ(Helium) ၵူႈသၵ်ႉၵသ်ႉ ႁၢႆးၻရူဝ်ၵျဵၼ်ႉ(Hydrogen) တင်းၼမ်သီႇလၢၼ်ႉ ယဵၼ်းပဵၼ်ႁႅင်းပွင် ၼႂ်းၼိုင်ႈပီ၊ လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼၼ်ႉမိူဝ်ႈတႅၵ်ႈၼိူင်းတင်း ႁႅင်းပွင်လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းတင်းမူတ်းၸိုင်တေမီး 2 x 1027 တၼ်၊ ဢမ်ႇၼၼ် 2,000 လၢၼ်ႉလၢၼ်ႉလၢၼ်ႉတၼ် ဢမ်ႇၼၼ် 332,946 တၢၼ်ႇလူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉ။

               တီႈၽိဝ်လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼၼ်ႉမီးႁႅင်းမႆႈ 5,700°၊ ဢမ်ႇၼၼ်ႉ 6,000 ၶဵလ်းဝိၼ်း၊ လႄႈၸင်ႇလႆႈတမ်းဝၢင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်သီလိူင်မီးတင်းမႆႈမွၵ်ႈ 5,000 လၢၼ်ႉပီ ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်လၵ်းၵႅၼ်လူင်ဢၼ်ယူႇၼႂ်းဝူင်ႈၵၢင်ၸူဝ်ႈၵူၼ်ႈလႆႈထႅင်ႈ 5,000 လၢၼ်ႉပီ၊ လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းသုတ်းသဵင်ႈၵေႃႈ ၸၢတ်ႈပၢၼ်မိူင်းၶူင်းၵၢင်တေၸၢင်ႈဝၢႆးႁၢႆၵႂႃႇ၊ ၵူၺ်းၼႃႇဢမ်ႇထိုင်တီႈလႆႈတႅၵ်ႇယၢႆပဵၼ်ၽွင်ၼင်ႇၵွၼ်ႇ၊ ၵွပ်ႈပိူဝ်ႈႁႅင်းၼွင်ႇၸၼ်မီးၼမ်လိူဝ်ႁႅင်းဢီးၽိုတ်ႉ၊ လိုၼ်းသုတ်းၵေႃႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းတေယဵၼ်းပဵၼ်လၢဝ်သႅၼ်းလဵၵ်ႉ ဢၼ်ႁွင်ႉဝႃႈလၢဝ် ၶရႄႉၶၢဝ် ၼႆၼၼ်ႉယူႇယဝ်ႉ။

လၢဝ်ပုတ်ႉ ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်လဵၵ်ႉလိူဝ်သေပိူၼ်ႈမူတ်းၼႂ်းၵႃႈလၢဝ်လူင်တင်းလၢႆ ၊ လႄႈ ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်ယူႇၸမ် လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းလိူဝ်သေပိူၼ်ႈသုတ်း၊ ႁၢင်ႇၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း 4,879.4 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km)၊တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ လႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 87 ဝၼ်း၊ ဢမ်ႇမီးလုၵ်ႈလိူၼ်လႄႈၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ်တင်းလၢႆပၼ်ႇလဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း။

လၢဝ်သုၵ်း ဢမ်ႇၼၼ်လၢဝ်ၸုမ်ႈမိူင်း ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်ငၢႆးၵၼ်တင်း လူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉႁဝ်းတႄႉꧦ၊ထၢၼ်ႈပေႃးဢွၼ် ႁွင်ႉၵၼ်ဝႃႈလၢဝ်ၽႃၽႄ၊ ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်မီးသၢႆႁိူဝ်ႈလႅင်းထွင်ႇဝႆႉ၊ ပေႃးလုၵ်ႉတီႈလူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉမုင်ႈတူၺ်းၵႂႃႇၸိုင် လၢဝ်သုၵ်း ယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း 107 လၢၼ်ႉ ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ (km ) မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင်103.7 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇ တႃႇ (km )၊ တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ လႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 224.7 ဝၼ်း၊ လၢဝ်သုၵ်းဢမ်ႇမီးလုၵ်ႈလိူၼ်လႄႈ ၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ်တင်းလၢႆပၼ်ႇလဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း။

လူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉဢၼ်ၵူၼ်းႁဝ်းယူႇသဝ်းယူႇၼႆႉ ပဵၼ်လူၵ်ႈမၢႆ(3) ၼပ်ႉတႄႇဢဝ်လုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းမႃး၊ ပဵၼ်လူၵ်ႈဢၼ်မီး တူဝ်မီးၸႂ်ယူႇသဝ်းၼမ်လိူဝ်ပိူၼ်ႈ၊ လူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉၼႆႉ ယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း 149 လၢၼ်ႉ ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ( km ) မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင်12,755 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ (km ) တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ လႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 365.25 ဝၼ်း။

လၢဝ်ဢင်းၵၢၼ်း ဢမ်ႇၼၼ် လၢဝ်လႅင်၊ ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်ယူႇၶပ်းတၢမ်းၵၼ်တင်းလူၵ်ႈလုမ်ႈၾႃႉ၊ ယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း  206.6 လၢၼ်ႉ ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ( km) မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင် 6,804.9 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ ( km ) တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉလႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 687 ဝၼ်း၊ လၢဝ်ဢင်းၵၢၼ်းမီးၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ် ယူႇလဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း(2) ႁူၺ်ႇ ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်လုၵ်ႈလဵၵ်ႉၼႅၼ်ႇ မီးတၢင်းယႂ်ႇ 13 လႄႈ 22 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ (km)ၵူၺ်း။

လၢဝ်ၽတ်းပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်ယႂ်ႇလိူဝ်ပိူၼ်ႈမူတ်း ၼႂ်းၶူင်းၵၢင်၊ ယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း 741 လၢၼ်ႉၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ၊ (km) မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင် 142,984 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km)၊ တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ လႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 4,335 ဝၼ်း၊ လၢဝ်ၽတ်း မီးၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ် ယူႇလဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း 63 ႁူၺ်ႇ။

လၢဝ်သဝ်ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်ဢၼ်မီး ၵူင်ႇႁူင်းႁႆး ႁၢင်ႈလီလိူဝ်ပိူၼ်ႈ၊ [ၼႂ်းၵႃႈလုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ဢၼ်မီးႁၢင်ႈၵူင်ႇႁူင်းႁႆး(ဝူင်းႁိူဝ်ႈ)]၊ လႄႈယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း 1,349 လၢၼ်ႉ ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km) မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင် 120,536 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km) တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ လႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 10,758 ဝၼ်း၊ မီးၸုမ်းၽုင်လၢဝ်ယူႇလဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း 60 ႁူၺ်ႇ။

လၢဝ်ယူရေၼသ်း ပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ဢၼ်ယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵႆၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း2,735 လၢၼ်ႉ ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km)၊ မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင် 51,118 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km) တႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ ၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 30,708 ဝၼ်း၊ မီးလုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ပၼ်လဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း 27 ႁူၺ်ႇ။

လၢဝ်ၼႅပ်ႉပၸုၼ်း ပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ဢၼ်မီးသီသွမ်ႇ ဢၼ်လုၵ်ႈယႂ်ႇလိူဝ်ပိူၼ်ႈ၊ ပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ဢၼ်ယူႇၽၢႆႇၼွၵ်ႈပိူၼ်ႈမူတ်း၊ ၼႂ်းၵႃႈလၢဝ်တင်းလၢႆ ၊ ယူႇႁၢင်ႇၵႆၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်း 4,460 လၢၼ်ႉ ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ (km) ၊ မီးသဵၼ်ႈလႅၼ်ႈၸွမ်းႁွႆးတၢင်းလင် ယၢဝ်းထိုင် 49,528 ၵီႇလူဝ်ႇၵီႇလူဝ်ႇမီႇတႃႇ(km) ၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်းတႃႇပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈၼႆႉ လႆႈၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်း 60,225 ဝၼ်း၊ မီးလုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ပၼ်လဵပ်ႈၸွမ်း 14 ႁူၺ်ႇ။

လၢဝ်ၽလူတူဝ်း ပဵၼ်လၢဝ်လုၵ်ႈလိုၼ်းသုတ်း ၼႂ်းၵႃႈလၢဝ်လူင်တင်းၵဝ်ႈ၊ ၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်းပၼ်ႇၼိုင်ႈႁွပ်ႈ(တၢၼ်ႇၼိုင်ႈဝၼ်း) 453 ၸူဝ်ႈမူင်း တႃႇၸႂ်ႉၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်းပၼ်ႇႁွပ်ႈလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းသမ်ႉမီး 248 ပီ၊ ပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ဢၼ်မီးႁၢင်ႈၽၢင်ငၢႆးၵၼ်တင်း လၢဝ်ပုတ်ႉ၊ လႄႈပဵၼ်လုၵ်ႈလၢဝ်ဢၼ်ႁၢင်ႇၵႆၵၼ်တင်းလုၵ်ႈတႃဝၼ်းသေပိူၼ်ႈမူတ်း။

ၽိုၼ်ဢိင်


  1. Jump up^ “Hubble sees galaxies galore”. spacetelescope.org. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  2. Jump up to:a b c Planck Collaboration (2015). “Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters (See Table 4 on page 31 of pfd)”. Astronomy & Astrophysics594: A13. arXiv:1502.01589 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A…594A..13P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525830.
  3. Jump up^ “MSU researcher recognized for discoveries about universe”. December 21, 2004. Retrieved February 8,2011.
  4. Jump up^ Itzhak Bars; John Terning (2009). Extra Dimensions in Space and Time. Springer. pp. 27ff. ISBN 978-0-387-77637-8. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
  5. Jump up^ SPACE.com – Universe Measured: We’re 156 Billion Light-years Wide!
  6. Jump up to:a b c d Greene, Brian (2011). The Hidden Reality. Alfred A. Knopf.
  7. Jump up^ Paul Davies (2006). The Goldilocks Enigma. First Mariner Books. p. 43ff. ISBN 978-0-618-59226-5. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  8. Jump up to:a b NASA/WMAP Science Team (January 24, 2014). “Universe 101: What is the Universe Made Of?”. NASA. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
  9. Jump up to:a b Fixsen, D. J. (2009). “The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background”. The Astrophysical Journal707 (2): 916–920. arXiv:0911.1955 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2009ApJ…707..916F. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/916.
  10. Jump up to:a b c “First Planck results: the Universe is still weird and interesting”. Matthew Francis. Ars technica. March 21, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  11. Jump up^ NASA/WMAP Science Team (January 24, 2014). “Universe 101: Will the Universe expand forever?”. NASA. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  12. Jump up^ Zeilik, Michael; Gregory, Stephen A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 0030062284. The totality of all space and time; all that is, has been, and will be.
  13. Jump up^ “Universe”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
  14. Jump up^ “Universe”. Dictionary.com. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
  15. Jump up^http://www.isaacpub.org/images/PaperPDF/AdAp_100039_2016122914005354452.pdf
  16. Jump up^ Dold-Samplonius, Yvonne (2002). From China to Paris: 2000 Years Transmission of Mathematical Ideas. Franz Steiner Verlag.
  17. Jump up to:a b c d Thomas F. Glick; Steven Livesey; Faith Wallis. Medieval Science Technology and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.
  18. Jump up^ Hawking, Stephen (1988). A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books. p. 125. ISBN 0-553-05340-X.
  19. Jump up to:a b “The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011”. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  20. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Ellis, George F.R.; U. Kirchner; W.R. Stoeger (2004). “Multiverses and physical cosmology”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society347(3): 921–936. arXiv:astro-ph/0305292 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2004MNRAS.347..921E. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07261.x.
  21. Jump up^ Palmer, Jason. (August 3, 2011) BBC News – ‘Multiverse’ theory suggested by microwave background. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
  22. Jump up^ Paul Copan; William Lane Craig (2004). Creation Out of Nothing: A Biblical, Philosophical, and Scientific Exploration. Baker Academic. p. 220. ISBN 9780801027338.
  23. Jump up^ Alexander Bolonkin (November 2011). Universe, Human Immortality and Future Human Evaluation. Elsevier. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-12-415801-6.
  24. Jump up^ Duco A. Schreuder (December 3, 2014). Vision and Visual Perception. Archway Publishing. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-4808-1294-9.
  25. Jump up^ Tegmark, Max. “The Mathematical Universe”. Foundations of Physics38 (2): 101–150. arXiv:0704.0646 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008FoPh…38..101T. doi:10.1007/s10701-007-9186-9. a short version of which is available at Shut up and calculate. (in reference to David Mermin’s famous quote “shut up and calculate” [1]
  26. Jump up^ Jim Holt (2012). Why Does the World Exist?. Liveright Publishing. p. 308.
  27. Jump up^ Timothy Ferris (1997). The Whole Shebang: A State-of-the-Universe(s) Report. Simon & Schuster. p. 400.
  28. Jump up^ The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, volume II, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971, p. 3518.
  29. Jump up^ Lewis, C. T. and Short, S (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-864201-6, pp. 1933, 1977–1978.
  30. Jump up^ Liddell; Scott. “A Greek-English Lexicon”. πᾶς
  31. Jump up^ Liddell; Scott. “A Greek-English Lexicon”. ὅλος
  32. Jump up^ Liddell; Scott. “A Greek–English Lexicon”. κόσμος
  33. Jump up^ Lewis, C. T.; Short, S (1879). A Latin Dictionary. Oxford University Press. pp. 1881–1882, 1175, 1189–1190. ISBN 0-19-864201-6.
  34. Jump up^ The Compact Edition of the Oxford English DictionaryII. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1971. pp. 909, 569, 3821–3822, 1900. ISBN 978-0198611172.
  35. Jump up^ Joseph Silk (2009). Horizons of Cosmology. Templeton Pressr. p. 208.
  36. Jump up^ Simon Singh (2005). Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe. Harper Perennial. p. 560.
  37. Jump up^ C. Sivaram (1986). “Evolution of the Universe through the Planck epoch”. Astrophysics & Space Science125: 189–199. Bibcode:1986Ap&SS.125..189S. doi:10.1007/BF00643984.
  38. Jump up^ Richard B. Larson & Volker Bromm (March 2002). “The First Stars in the Universe”. Scientific American.
  39. Jump up^ Ryden, Barbara, “Introduction to Cosmology”, 2006, eqn. 6.33
  40. Jump up^ Brill, Dieter; Jacobsen, Ted (2006). “Spacetime and Euclidean geometry”. General Relativity and Gravitation38: 643–651. arXiv:gr-qc/0407022 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2006GReGr..38..643B. doi:10.1007/s10714-006-0254-9.
  41. Jump up^ “Antimatter”. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. October 28, 2003. Archived from the original on March 7, 2004. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  42. Jump up^ Landau & Lifshitz (1975, p. 361): “It is interesting to note that in a closed space the total electric charge must be zero. Namely, every closed surface in a finite space encloses on each side of itself a finite region of space. Therefore the flux of the electric field through this surface is equal, on th eone hand, to the total charge located in the interior of the surface, and on the other hand to the total charge outside of it, with opposite sign. Consequently, the sum of the charges on the two sides of the surface is zero.”
  43. Jump up^ Adamson, Allan (19 October 2017). “Universe Should Not Actually Exist: Big Bang Produced Equal Amounts Of Matter And Antimatter”. TechTimes.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  44. Jump up^ Smorra C.; et al. (20 October 2017). “A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment”. Nature550: 371–374. doi:10.1038/nature24048. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  45. Jump up^ Edward Robert Harrison (2000). Cosmology: the science of the universe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 447–. ISBN 978-0-521-66148-5. Retrieved May 1,2011.
  46. Jump up^ Andrew R. Liddle; David Hilary Lyth (April 13, 2000). Cosmological inflation and large-scale structure. Cambridge University Press. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-521-57598-0. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
  47. Jump up^ “What is the Ultimate Fate of the Universe?”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  48. Jump up to:a b Luminet, Jean-Pierre; Weeks, Jeffrey R.; Riazuelo, Alain; Lehoucq, Roland; Uzan, Jean-Philippe (October 9, 2003). “Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background”. Nature425 (6958): 593–5. arXiv:astro-ph/0310253 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..593L. doi:10.1038/nature01944. PMID 14534579.
  49. Jump up^ Roukema, Boudewijn; Zbigniew Buliński; Agnieszka Szaniewska; Nicolas E. Gaudin (2008). “A test of the Poincare dodecahedral space topology hypothesis with the WMAP CMB data”. Astronomy and Astrophysics482(3): 747–753. arXiv:0801.0006 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008A&A…482..747L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078777.
  50. Jump up^ Aurich, Ralf; Lustig, S.; Steiner, F.; Then, H. (2004). “Hyperbolic Universes with a Horned Topology and the CMB Anisotropy”. Classical and Quantum Gravity21(21): 4901–4926. arXiv:astro-ph/0403597 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2004CQGra..21.4901A. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/21/21/010.
  51. Jump up^ Planck collaboration (2014). “Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters”. Astronomy & Astrophysics571: A16. arXiv:1303.5076 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014A&A…571A..16P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321591.
  52. Jump up^ “Planck reveals ‘almost perfect’ universe”. Michael Banks. Physics World. March 21, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  53. Jump up^ McCall, Storrs. A Model of the Universe: Space-time, Probability, and Decision. Oxford University. p. 23.
  54. Jump up^ Michio Kaku (March 11, 2008). Physics of the Impossible: A Scientific Exploration into the World of Phasers, Force Fields, Teleportation, and Time Travel. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 202–. ISBN 978-0-385-52544-2.
  55. Jump up^ Christopher Crockett (February 20, 2013). “What is a light-year?”. EarthSky.
  56. Jump up to:a b Rindler, p. 196.
  57. Jump up^ Christian, Eric; Samar, Safi-Harb. “How large is the Milky Way?”. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
  58. Jump up^ Hall, Shannon (May 4, 2015). “Size of the Milky Way Upgraded, Solving Galaxy Puzzle”. Space.com. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  59. Jump up^ I. Ribas; C. Jordi; F. Vilardell; E.L. Fitzpatrick; R.W. Hilditch; F. Edward Guinan (2005). “First Determination of the Distance and Fundamental Properties of an Eclipsing Binary in the Andromeda Galaxy”. Astrophysical Journal635 (1): L37–L40. arXiv:astro-ph/0511045 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2005ApJ…635L..37R. doi:10.1086/499161.
    McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Ibata, R. A.; Lewis, G. F.; Tanvir, N. (2005). “Distances and metallicities for 17 Local Group galaxies”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society356(4): 979–997. arXiv:astro-ph/0410489 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2005MNRAS.356..979M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08514.x.
  60. Jump up^ “How can space travel faster than the speed of light?”. Vannesa Janek. Universe Today. February 20, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  61. Jump up^ “Is faster-than-light travel or communication possible? Section: Expansion of the Universe”. Philip Gibbs. 1997. Archived from the original on November 17, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  62. Jump up^ Phil Berardelli (March 25, 2010). “Galaxy Collisions Give Birth to Quasars”. Science News.
  63. Jump up^ Riess, Adam G.; Filippenko; Challis; Clocchiatti; Diercks; Garnavich; Gilliland; Hogan; Jha; Kirshner; Leibundgut; Phillips; Reiss; Schmidt; Schommer; Smith; Spyromilio; Stubbs; Suntzeff; Tonry (1998). “Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant”. Astronomical Journal116 (3): 1009–38. arXiv:astro-ph/9805201 Freely accessible. Bibcode:1998AJ….116.1009R. doi:10.1086/300499.
  64. Jump up^ Perlmutter, S.; Aldering; Goldhaber; Knop; Nugent; Castro; Deustua; Fabbro; Goobar; Groom; Hook; Kim; Kim; Lee; Nunes; Pain; Pennypacker; Quimby; Lidman; Ellis; Irwin; McMahon; Ruiz‐Lapuente; Walton; Schaefer; Boyle; Filippenko; Matheson; Fruchter; et al. (1999). “Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae”. Astrophysical Journal517 (2): 565–86. arXiv:astro-ph/9812133 Freely accessible. Bibcode:1999ApJ…517..565P. doi:10.1086/307221.
  65. Jump up^ Sean Carroll and Michio Kaku (2014). How the Universe Works 3. End of the Universe. Discovery Channel.
  66. Jump up^ Overbye, Dennis (October 11, 2003). “A ‘Cosmic Jerk’ That Reversed the Universe”. New York Times.
  67. Jump up^ Schutz, Bernard (May 31, 2009). A First Course in General Relativity (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 142 & 171. ISBN 0-521-88705-4.
  68. Jump up^ WMAP Mission: Results – Age of the Universe. Map.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
  69. Jump up^ Luminet, Jean-Pierre; Boudewijn F. Roukema (1999). “Topology of the Universe: Theory and Observations”. Proceedings of Cosmology School held at Cargese, Corsica, August 1998. arXiv:astro-ph/9901364 Freely accessible. Bibcode:1999ASIC..541..117L.
  70. Jump up^ Fritzsche, Hellmut. “electromagnetic radiation | physics”. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 1. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  71. Jump up^ “Physics 7:Relativity, SpaceTime and Cosmology”(PDF). Physics 7:Relativity, SpaceTime and Cosmology. University of California Riverside. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  72. Jump up^ “Physics – for the 21st Century”. www.learner.org. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Annenberg Learner. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  73. Jump up^ Redd, SPACE.com, Nola Taylor. “It’s Official: The Universe Is Dying Slowly”. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  74. Jump up^ “RIP Universe – Your Time Is Coming… Slowly | Video”. Will Parr, et al. Space.com. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
  75. Jump up^ “Dark matter – A history shapes by dark force”. Timothy Ferris. National Geographic. 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  76. Jump up to:a b Sean Carroll, Ph.D., Caltech, 2007, The Teaching Company, Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side of the Universe, Guidebook Part 2 page 46, Accessed October 7, 2013, “…dark matter: An invisible, essentially collisionless component of matter that makes up about 25 percent of the energy density of the universe… it’s a different kind of particle… something not yet observed in the laboratory…”
  77. Jump up to:a b Peebles, P. J. E. & Ratra, Bharat (2003). “The cosmological constant and dark energy”. Reviews of Modern Physics75 (2): 559–606. arXiv:astro-ph/0207347 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003RvMP…75..559P. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559.
  78. Jump up^ Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Delpino, F.; Sironi, G.; Inzani, P.; Deamici, G.; Solheim, J. -E.; Berger, L.; Partridge, R. B.; Martenis, P. L.; Sangree, C. H.; Harvey, R. C. (1986). “Large-scale homogeneity of the Universe measured by the microwave background”. Nature319 (6056): 751–753. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..751M. doi:10.1038/319751a0.
  79. Jump up^ “The Structure of the Universe”.
  80. Jump up^ Mackie, Glen (February 1, 2002). “To see the Universe in a Grain of Taranaki Sand”. Swinburne University. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
  81. Jump up^ “Unveiling the Secret of a Virgo Dwarf Galaxy”. ESO. May 3, 2000. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  82. Jump up^ “Hubble’s Largest Galaxy Portrait Offers a New High-Definition View”. NASA. February 28, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  83. Jump up^ “Earth’s new address: ‘Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea'”. Elizabeth Gibney. Nature. September 3, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  84. Jump up^ “Local Group”. Fraser Cain. Universe Today. May 4, 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  85. Jump up^ “Astronomers discover largest known structure in the universe is … a big hole”. The Guardian. April 20, 2015.
  86. Jump up^ “Content of the Universe – WMAP 9yr Pie Chart”. wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  87. Jump up^ Rindler, p. 202.
  88. Jump up^ Andrew Liddle (2003). An Introduction to Modern Cosmology (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-84835-7.. p. 2.
  89. Jump up^ Livio, Mario (2001). The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos. John Wiley and Sons. p. 53. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  90. Jump up^ Peebles, P. J. E. & Ratra, Bharat (2003). “The cosmological constant and dark energy”. Reviews of Modern Physics75 (2): 559–606. arXiv:astro-ph/0207347 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003RvMP…75..559P. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559.
  91. Jump up^ Paul J. Steinhardt, Neil Turok (2006). “Why the cosmological constant is small and positive”. Science312 (5777): 1180–1183. arXiv:astro-ph/0605173 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2006Sci…312.1180S. doi:10.1126/science.1126231. PMID 16675662.
  92. Jump up^ “Dark Energy”. Hyperphysics. Retrieved January 4,2014.
  93. Jump up^ Carroll, Sean (2001). “The cosmological constant”. Living Reviews in Relativity4. arXiv:astro-ph/0004075 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2001LRR…..4….1C. doi:10.12942/lrr-2001-1. Archived from the original on October 13, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  94. Jump up^ “Planck captures portrait of the young Universe, revealing earliest light”. University of Cambridge. March 21, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  95. Jump up^ P. Davies (1992). The New Physics: A Synthesis. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-521-43831-4.
  96. Jump up^ Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo (September 1, 1992). “The baryon content of the Universe”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society258 (1): 14P–18P. arXiv:astro-ph/0502178 Freely accessible. Bibcode:1992MNRAS.258P..14P. doi:10.1093/mnras/258.1.14P. ISSN 0035-8711.
  97. Jump up^ G. ‘t Hooft (1997). In search of the ultimate building blocks. Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-521-57883-3.
  98. Jump up^ Clayton, Donald D. (1983). Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 362–435. ISBN 0-226-10953-4.
  99. Jump up^ Veltman, Martinus (2003). Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 981-238-149-X.
  100. Jump up to:a b Sylvie Braibant; Giorgio Giacomelli; Maurizio Spurio (2012). Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1.
  101. Jump up^ Close, Frank (2012). Particle Physics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192804341.
  102. Jump up to:a b R. Oerter (2006). The Theory of Almost Everything: The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics (Kindle ed.). Penguin Group. p. 2. ISBN 0-13-236678-9.
  103. Jump up^ Onyisi, P. (October 23, 2012). “Higgs boson FAQ”. University of Texas ATLAS group. Retrieved January 8,2013.
  104. Jump up^ Strassler, M. (October 12, 2012). “The Higgs FAQ 2.0”. ProfMattStrassler.com. Retrieved January 8,2013[Q] Why do particle physicists care so much about the Higgs particle?
    [A] Well, actually, they don’t. What they really care about is the Higgs field, because it is so important. [emphasis in original]
  105. Jump up^ Steven Weinberg. Dreams of a Final Theory: The Scientist’s Search for the Ultimate Laws of Nature. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-78786-6.
  106. Jump up to:a b Allday, Jonathan (2002). Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang (Second ed.). IOP Publishing. ISBN 0-7503-0806-0.
  107. Jump up^ “Lepton (physics)”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  108. Jump up^ Harari, H. (1977). “Beyond charm”. In Balian, R.; Llewellyn-Smith, C.H. Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions at High Energy, Les Houches, France, Jul 5- Aug 14, 1976. Les Houches Summer School Proceedings. 29. North-Holland. p. 613.
  109. Jump up^ Harari H. (1977). “Three generations of quarks and leptons” (PDF). In E. van Goeler; Weinstein R. Proceedings of the XII Rencontre de Moriond. p. 170. SLAC-PUB-1974.
  110. Jump up^ “Experiment confirms famous physics model” (Press release). MIT News Office. April 18, 2007.
  111. Jump up^ “Thermal history of the Universe and early growth of density fluctuations” (PDF). Guinevere Kauffmann. Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. Retrieved January 6,2016.
  112. Jump up^ “First few minutes”. Eric Chaisson. Havard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  113. Jump up^ “Timeline of the Big Bang”. The physics of the Universe. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  114. Jump up to:a b c d Zeilik, Michael; Gregory, Stephen A. (1998). “25-2”. Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 0030062284.
  115. Jump up^ Raine & Thomas (2001, p. 12)
  116. Jump up to:a b Raine & Thomas (2001, p. 66)
  117. Jump up^ Friedmann A. (1922). “Über die Krümmung des Raumes” (PDF). Zeitschrift für Physik10 (1): 377–386. Bibcode:1922ZPhy…10..377F. doi:10.1007/BF01332580.
  118. Jump up^ “Cosmic Detectives”. The European Space Agency (ESA). April 2, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  119. Jump up^ Raine & Thomas (2001, pp. 122–123)
  120. Jump up to:a b Raine & Thomas (2001, p. 70)
  121. Jump up^ Raine & Thomas (2001, p. 84)
  122. Jump up^ Raine & Thomas (2001, pp. 88, 110–113)
  123. Jump up^ Munitz MK (1959). “One Universe or Many?”. Journal of the History of Ideas12 (2): 231–255. doi:10.2307/2707516. JSTOR 2707516.
  124. Jump up^ Linde A. (1986). “Eternal chaotic inflation”. Mod. Phys. LettA1 (2): 81–85. Bibcode:1986MPLA….1…81L. doi:10.1142/S0217732386000129.
    Linde A. (1986). “Eternally existing self-reproducing chaotic inflationary Universe” (PDF). Phys. LettB175(4): 395–400. Bibcode:1986PhLB..175..395L. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(86)90611-8. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
  125. Jump up^ Everett, Hugh (1957). “Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics”. Reviews of Modern Physics29: 454–462. Bibcode:1957RvMP…29..454E. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.29.454.
  126. Jump up to:a b Tegmark M. (2003). “Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations”. Scientific American288 (5): 40–51. arXiv:astro-ph/0302131 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003SciAm.288e..40T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.
  127. Jump up^ Tegmark, Max (2003). J. D. Barrow; P.C.W. Davies; C.L. Harper, eds. “Parallel Universes”. Scientific American: “Science and Ultimate Reality: from Quantum to Cosmos”, honoring John Wheeler’s 90th birthday. Cambridge University Press. 288: 2131. arXiv:astro-ph/0302131 Freely accessible. Bibcode:2003astro.ph..2131T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.
  128. Jump up^ Ellis G. F (2011). “Does the Multiverse Really Exist?”. Scientific American305 (2): 38–43. Bibcode:2011SciAm.305a..38E. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0811-38.
  129. Jump up^ Clara Moskowitz (August 12, 2011). “Weird! Our Universe May Be a ‘Multiverse,’ Scientists Say”. livescience.
  130. Jump up^ Mark Isaak (ed.) (2005). “CI301: The Anthropic Principle”. Index to Creationist Claims. TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved October 31, 2007.
  131. Jump up^ Gernet, J. (1993–1994). “Space and time: Science and religion in the encounter between China and Europe”. Chinese Science11. pp. 93–102.
  132. Jump up^ Ng, Tai (2007). “III.3”. Chinese Culture, Western Culture: Why Must We Learn from Each Other?. iUniverse, Inc.
  133. Jump up^ Blandford R. D. “A century of general relativity: Astrophysics and cosmology”. Science347 (6226): 1103–1108. Bibcode:2015Sci…347.1103B. doi:10.1126/science.aaa4033. PMID 25745165.
  134. Jump up^ Leeming, David A. (2010). Creation Myths of the World. ABC-CLIO. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1-59884-174-9. In common usage the word ‘myth’ refers to narratives or beliefs that are untrue or merely fanciful; the stories that make up national or ethnic mythologies describe characters and events that common sense and experience tell us are impossible. Nevertheless, all cultures celebrate such myths and attribute to them various degrees of literal or symbolic truth.
  135. Jump up^ Eliade, Mircea (1964). Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World). Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-291001-7.
  136. Jump up^ Leonard, Scott A.; McClure, Michael (2004). Myth and Knowing: An Introduction to World Mythology (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-7674-1957-4.
  137. Jump up^ (Henry Gravrand, “La civilisation Sereer -Pangool”) [in] Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frobenius-Institut, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kulturmorphologie, Frobenius Gesellschaft, “Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43–44”, F. Steiner (1997), pp. 144–5, ISBN 3515028420
  138. Jump up^ B. Young, Louise. The Unfinished Universe. Oxford University Press. p. 21.
  139. Jump up^ Will Durant, Our Oriental Heritage:

    “Two systems of Hindu thought propound physical theories suggestively similar to those of Greece. Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika philosophy, held that the world is composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. The Jains more nearly approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combinations. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the Sun; and Vachaspati, like Newton, interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye.”

  140. Jump up^ Stcherbatsky, F. Th. (1930, 1962), Buddhist Logic, Volume 1, p. 19, Dover, New York:

    “The Buddhists denied the existence of substantial matter altogether. Movement consists for them of moments, it is a staccato movement, momentary flashes of a stream of energy… “Everything is evanescent”,… says the Buddhist, because there is no stuff… Both systems [Sānkhya, and later Indian Buddhism] share in common a tendency to push the analysis of existence up to its minutest, last elements which are imagined as absolute qualities, or things possessing only one unique quality. They are called “qualities” (guna-dharma) in both systems in the sense of absolute qualities, a kind of atomic, or intra-atomic, energies of which the empirical things are composed. Both systems, therefore, agree in denying the objective reality of the categories of Substance and Quality,… and of the relation of Inference uniting them. There is in Sānkhya philosophy no separate existence of qualities. What we call quality is but a particular manifestation of a subtle entity. To every new unit of quality corresponds a subtle quantum of matter which is called guna, “quality”, but represents a subtle substantive entity. The same applies to early Buddhism where all qualities are substantive… or, more precisely, dynamic entities, although they are also called dharmas (‘qualities’).”

  141. Jump up^ Donald Wayne Viney (1985). “The Cosmological Argument”. Charles Hartshorne and the Existence of God. SUNY Press. pp. 65–68. ISBN 0-87395-907-8.
  142. Jump up^ Aristotle; Forster, E. S. (Edward Seymour), 1879–1950; Dobson, J. F. (John Frederic), 1875–1947 (1914). De Mundo. p. 2.
  143. Jump up^ Boyer, C. (1968) A History of Mathematics. Wiley, p. 54.
  144. Jump up^ Neugebauer, Otto E. (1945). “The History of Ancient Astronomy Problems and Methods”. Journal of Near Eastern Studies4 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1086/370729. JSTOR 595168. the Chaldaean Seleucus from Seleucia
  145. Jump up^ Sarton, George (1955). “Chaldaean Astronomy of the Last Three Centuries B. C”. Journal of the American Oriental Society75 (3): 166–173 (169). doi:10.2307/595168. JSTOR 595168. the heliocentrical astronomy invented by Aristarchos of Samos and still defended a century later by Seleucos the Babylonian
  146. Jump up^ William P. D. Wightman (1951, 1953), The Growth of Scientific Ideas, Yale University Press p. 38, where Wightman calls him Seleukos the Chaldean.
  147. Jump up^ Lucio Russo, Flussi e riflussi, Feltrinelli, Milano, 2003, ISBN 88-07-10349-4.
  148. Jump up^ Bartel (1987, p. 527)
  149. Jump up^ Bartel (1987, pp. 527–9)
  150. Jump up^ Bartel (1987, pp. 529–34)
  151. Jump up^ Bartel (1987, pp. 534–7)
  152. Jump up^ Nasr, Seyyed H. (1993) [1964]. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (2nd ed.). 1st edition by Harvard University Press, 2nd edition by State University of New York Press. pp. 135–6. ISBN 0-7914-1515-5.
  153. Jump up^ Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 754.
  154. Jump up^ Ālī, Ema Ākabara. Science in the Quran1. Malik Library. p. 218.
  155. Jump up^ Ragep, F. Jamil (2001), “Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth’s Motion in Context”, Science in Context, Cambridge University Press, 14 (1–2): 145–163, doi:10.1017/s0269889701000060
  156. Jump up to:a b Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 755–756.
  157. Jump up to:a b Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 756.
  158. Jump up^ de Cheseaux JPL (1744). Traité de la Comète. Lausanne. pp. 223ff.. Reprinted as Appendix II in Dickson FP (1969). The Bowl of Night: The Physical Universe and Scientific Thought. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. ISBN 978-0-262-54003-2.
  159. Jump up^ Olbers HWM (1826). “Unknown title”. Bode’s Jahrbuch111.. Reprinted as Appendix I in Dickson FP (1969). The Bowl of Night: The Physical Universe and Scientific Thought. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. ISBN 978-0-262-54003-2.
  160. Jump up^ Jeans, J. H. (1902). “The Stability of a Spherical Nebula” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A199 (312–320): 1–53. Bibcode:1902RSPTA.199….1J. doi:10.1098/rsta.1902.0012. JSTOR 90845. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2011. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
  161. Jump up^ Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 757.
  162. Jump up^ Sharov, Aleksandr Sergeevich; Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich (1993). Edwin Hubble, the discoverer of the big bang universe. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-521-41617-7. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
  163. Jump up^ Einstein, A (1917). “Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie”. Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte. 1917. (part 1): 142–152.

 


ပၼ်တၢင်းႁၼ်ထိုင်

ၵေႃႉ ပၼ်တၢင်းႁၼ်ထိုင်

မူႇလိၵ်ႈ
ၼႄထႅင်ႈ

ၸၢႆးလိူၼ်တႆး

ၸၢႆးလိူၼ်တႆး ပဵၼ်ၽူႈၵုမ်းၵမ် လႄႈၵေႃႇတင်ႈ Website www.luentai.info ၼႆႉၶိုၼ်ႈမႃး။
Close